The CRISPR technology allows us to edit the code within the human genome simply and quickly, CRISPR is the result of the study of the genome of bacteria, which is composed of a single circular molecule, formed by two chains, consisting of one sequence of nucleotides formed by the nitrogenous bases Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine.
CRISPR means: short palindromic repetitions of sequences of nitrogenous bases, which are equal sequences from front to back and vice versa.
These include, short segments of spacer DNA whit previous exposures to a bacteriophage virus. Very close to these repeats can be found the genes CAS that code for a type of protein nuclease.
Through CRISPR it is possible to program the system so that it is directed to a specific location of any DNA and modify it, which has advantages over other methods of genome editing, such as the one of TALEN (effector nuclease similar to those of the transcription activator)), in vitro gametogenesis and nucleases with zinc fingers (ZFNs).
Among the advantages are its simplicity and lower economic cost, because it is not necessary to have protein domains to interact of DNA, which greatly facilitates the genomic editing process and the ability to edit several regions of the genome at the same time.
CRISPR is a technology that does not only have a broad effect on the human genome, but also within the field of medicine, agriculture and food, according to the American chemistry Jennifer Doudna:
"The CRISPR / Cas9 technology will have a very important impact on our daily lives and on the culture of the future. Medicine, agriculture, research or the manufacture of "green" chemical products are some of the areas that are enlarged by these tools. "